. In spite of / Despite Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.
. Although / (Even) though Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence.
. However / Nevertheless / Still / Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast. Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma.
. On the one hand … On the other hand. Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs.
. In contrast to / Contrary to. Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.
. Whereas Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas.
Reason and cause
. Because / As / Since / Seeing that Introduce a sentence. Subordinate sentences introduced by because always appear in final position.
. Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to. Introduce a noun phrase.
. In order to / So as to Introduce an infinitive of purpose.
. In order that / So that Introduce a sentence.
. Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore
. As a consequence of / As a result of Followed by a noun phrase.
. So Introduces a sentence. No commas.
. Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides / What’s more Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma.
. As well as / In addition to / Besides Used to add one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase.
For example / For instance Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas.
. Such as Introduces an example referring to the last idea.
. but / yet: followed by a noun phrase or a sentence.
‘The book is short but / yet interesting’
. in spite of / despite: It is placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
‘He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late’
although / though/ even though / in spite of the fact that: followed by a complete sentence. They can be placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. If it is placed at the beginning we need to use a comma after the clause.
‘Although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that the pupils had not studied, they all passed their exams’.
. however, nevertheless, even so, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary:
‘He was quite ill however/ nevertheless/ even so, he went to school’
. while, whereas
‘This film is very interesting, while/whereas that one is quite boring’
Reason and cause
. because, as since, seeing that:
‘Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home’
. because of, on account of, owing to, due to:
‘Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home’
. in order to, so as to, to:
‘She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes’
. for example, for instance, such as:
‘Vegetables are a good source of vitamins: for example / for instance, oranges have vitamin C’
. moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to:
‘In addition to soul music, she likes rap’
. apart from, except for:
‘Apart from English, she speaks French’.
. – First of all / Firstly / To begin with / First ….
– Second / Secondly / Then …
– Third / Thirdly / After that…
– The next stage …
– Finally / in short / to sum up / in conclusion / lastly / last but not least…
. As a result of:
‘As a result of his brave action, he was awarded a military medal.
Therefore, as a result, consequently, for this reason:
‘Consequently / for this reason, it always passes its annual road test’.