Linkers / Connectors Cheat Sheet




.     In spite of / Despite Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.

.     Although / (Even) though Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence.

.     However / Nevertheless / Still / Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast. Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma.

.     On the one hand … On the other hand. Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs.

.     In contrast to / Contrary to. Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase.

.     Whereas Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas.


Reason and cause


.     Because / As / Since / Seeing that Introduce a sentence. Subordinate sentences introduced by because always appear in final position.

.     Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to. Introduce a noun phrase.




.     In order to So as to Introduce an infinitive of purpose.

.     In order that / So that Introduce a sentence.




Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore

As a consequence of / As a result of Followed by a noun phrase.

.     So Introduces a sentence. No commas.




Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides What’s more Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma.

As well as / In addition to / Besides Used to add one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase.




      For example / For instance Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas.

.     Such as Introduces an example referring to the last idea.





but / yet: followed by a noun phrase or a sentence.

‘The book is short but / yet interesting’


in spite of / despite: It is placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

‘He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late’


although / though/ even though / in spite of the fact that: followed by a complete sentence. They can be placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. If it is placed at the beginning we need to use a comma after the clause.

‘Although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that the pupils had not studied, they all passed their exams’.


however, nevertheless, even so, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary:

‘He was quite ill however/ nevertheless/ even so, he went to school’


. while, whereas

‘This film is very interesting, while/whereas that one is quite boring’


Reason and cause


because, as since, seeing that:

‘Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home’


because of, on account of, owing to, due to:

‘Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home’


. in order to, so as to, to:

‘She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes’


Add information


for example, for instance, such as:

‘Vegetables are a good source of vitamins: for example / for instance, oranges have vitamin C’


moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to:

‘In addition to soul music, she likes rap’


. apart from, except for:

‘Apart from English, she speaks French’.




. – First of all / Firstly / To begin with / First ….

– Second / Secondly / Then …

– Third / Thirdly / After that

– The next stage …

– Finally / in short / to sum up / in conclusion / lastly / last but not least… 




As a result of:

‘As a result of his brave action, he was awarded a military medal.


Therefore, as a result, consequently, for this reason:

‘Consequently / for this reason, it always passes its annual road test’.


City issues


“Our great city is driven by a vision, a vision in which the contributions of every member of society irrespective of race, age, disability, gender or sexual orientation is respected.”  — Mayor George Hartwell of Grand Rapids, MI

“We know our collective future depends on our ability to have a planet— and a city — that can sustain life with clean air, clean water, nourishing food, and stable weather patterns.”  — Mayor Betsy Hodges of Minneapolis, MN

“In today’s globalized and high-tech world, innovation will decide the winners and losers in many different fields and industries.”  — Mayor Jim Ardis of Peoria, IL

“Creating opportunities to attain pathways to the middle class means that we have to invest more in affordable housing.”  — Mayor Muriel Bowser of Washington, DC

“Nothing will define a city more than the quality of the school system that services that community.”  — Mayor William Healey of Canton, OH     

“Making our community a safer place to live cannot be accomplished by police alone.”  — Mayor Denis Law of Renton, WA

“If we want a city that treats people fairly, we have to make sure there are opportunities for everyone to get around.” — Mayor Ralph Becker of Salt Lake City, UT